The Telesina Valley
The “Telesina” Valley, where today most of the companies and grape production are concentrated, was originally a closed basin occupied by a lake, of which the Calore River, the Tammaro River and the Sabato River were affluent.
The soils are mostly composed of clay-calcareous siliceous elements, with some rare erratic granite masses in Fortore. The conchious concretions and the fish incrustations (Pietraroja, Castelfranco in Miscano), the colored marble fields (Vitulano, Cautano, Paduli), and of transparent flakes and common chalcedony are not rare.
There are signs of volcanic activity in the area, as in most Campania, as in the areas of Vitulanese, Telesina.
In the Telesina and Titernina areas, in addition to thermal springs and mineral springs, there are large fields of gray tuff, formed evidently by volcanic ash and lignite (Pietraroja), which is a sign of the volcanic origin of those soils .